Часть Reading делится на три секции. Максимальный объем текста, который может быть представлен в заданиях, – 2750 слов.
Всего на выполнение заданий части Reading вам дается 60 минут. Вам нужно будет ответить на 40 вопросов по прочитанным текстам. Вопросы предусмотрены разного вида: задания множественного выбора, определение правдивости высказывания (True/False/Not Given), на соответствие, завершение таблицы, диаграммы или блок-схемы, краткие ответы на вопросы и т.д. За каждый правильный ответ вы получаете один балл, общий результат затем преобразуется в оценку по 9-балльной шкале.
Задания на чтение проверяют широкий спектр навыков, в том числе понимание основной идеи прочитанного текста, распознавание авторской аргументации и выводов, выявление подтекста.
Сложность текстов зависит от того, какую версию теста вы сдаете – Academic Reading или General Training.
В каждой из трех секций представлен длинный текст объемом, превышающим 2 тыс. знаков с пробелами. Представленный в заданиях материал может быть взят из книг или СМИ и, что важно, не требует знания специализированной терминологии. В самих текстах могут быть как описания, так и упор на фактическую информацию – IELTS Academic Reading не предполагает ограничений по стилю.
The Risks of Cigarette Smoke
Discovered in the early 1800s and named ‘nicotianine’, the oily essence now called nicotine is the main active ingredient of tobacco. Nicotine, however, is only a small component of cigarette smoke, which contains more than 4,700 chemical compounds, including 43 cancer-causing substances. In recent times, scientific research has been providing evidence that years of cigarette smoking vastly increases the risk of developing fatal medical conditions.
In addition to being responsible for more than 85 per cent of lung cancers, smoking is associated with cancers of, amongst others, the mouth, stomach and kidneys, and is thought to cause about 14 per cent of leukemia and cervical cancers. In 1990, smoking caused morethan 84,000 deaths, mainly resulting from such problems as pneumonia, bronchitis and influenza. Smoking, it is believed, is responsible for 30 per cent of all deaths from cancer and clearly represents the most important preventable cause of cancer in countries like the United States today.
Passive smoking, the breathing in of the side-stream smoke from the burning of tobacco between puffs or of the smoke exhaled by a smoker, also causes a serious health risk. A report published in 1992 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emphasized the health dangers, especially from side-stream smoke. This type of smoke contains moresmaller particles and is therefore more likely to be deposited deep in the lungs. On the basis of this report, the EPA has classified environmental tobacco smoke inthe highest risk category for causing cancer.
As an illustration of the health risks, in the case of a married couple where one partner is a smoker and one a non-smoker, the latter is believed to have a 30 per cent higher risk of death from heart disease because of passive smoking. The risk of lung cancer also increases over the years of exposure and the figure jumps to 80 per cent if the spouse has been smoking four packs a day for 20 years. It has been calculated that 17 per cent of cases of lung cancer can be attributed to high levels of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke during childhood and
A more recent study by researchers at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) has shown that second-hand cigarette smoke does more harm to non-smokers than to smokers. Leaving aside the philosophical question of whether anyone should have to breathe someone else’s cigarette smoke, the report suggests that the smoke experienced by many people in their daily lives is enough to produce substantial adverse effects on a person’s heart and lungs.
The report, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (AMA), was based on the researchers’own earlier research but also includes a review of studies over the past few years. The American Medical Association represents about half of all US doctors and is a strong opponent of smoking. The study suggests that people who smoke cigare
ttes are continually damaging their cardiovascular system, which adapts in order to compensate for the effects of smoking. It further states that people who do not smoke do not have the benefit of their system adapting to the smoke inhalation. Consequently, the effects of passive smoking are far greater onnon-smokers than on smokers.
This report emphasizes that cancer is not caused by a single element in cigarette smoke; harmful effects to health are caused by many components. Carbon monoxide, for example, competes with oxygen in red blood cells and interferes with the blood’s ability to deliver life-giving oxygen to the heart. Nicotine and other toxins in cigarette smoke activate small blood cells called platelets, which increases the likelihood of blood clots, thereby affecting blood circulation throughout the body.
The researchers criticize the practice of some scientific consultants who work with the tobacco industry for assumingthat cigarette smoke has the same impact on smokers as it does on non-smokers. They argue that those scientists are underestimating the damage done by passive smoking and, in support of their recent findings, cite some previous research which points to passive smoking as the cause for between 30,000 and 60,000 deaths from heart attacks each year in the United States. This means that passive smoking is the third most preventable cause of death after active smoking and alcohol-related diseases.
The study argues that the type of action needed against passive smoking should be similar to that being taken against illegal drugs and AIDS (SIDA). The UCSF researchers maintain that the simplest and most cost-effective action is to establish smoke-free work places, schools and public places.
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in the reading passage?
In boxes 1–4 on your answer sheet write
1. Thirty per cent of deaths in the United States are caused by smoking-related diseases.
2. If one partner in a marriage smokes, the other is likely to take up smoking.
3. Teenagers whose parents smoke are at risk of getting lung cancer at some time during their lives.
4. Opponents of smoking financed the UCSF study.
Больше заданий IELTS Academic Reading вы можете найти по ссылке.
Секция 1 состоит из двух или трех коротких текстов с фактической информацией, причем в каком-то из заданий может быть не один связный текст, а несколько микротекстов (например, 6–8 коротких объявлений, связанных общей тематикой рекламы отелей). Тематика текстов связана с повседневной жизнью в англоязычной стране.
Секция 2 состоит из двух коротких текстов с фактической информацией на тему работы (например, поиск работы, политика компании-работодателя, трудовой договор, обучающие материалы для персонала и т.д).
Секция 3 содержит один длинный текст общей тематики. Как правило, его берут из рекламы, справочников, официальных документов, книг или СМИ.
IMPORTANT NOTICE: PRODUCT RETURN
Fancy Foods wishes to inform the public that pieces of metal have been found in some jars of Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Spicy). The batches of the jars involved have numbers from J6617 to J6624. The batch number is printed on the bottom of each jar.
If you have any jars with these batch numbers, please return them (preferably unopened) to the supermarket where you purchased them. You can also return them to the factory (Fancy Foods Retailers, Blacktown). Fancy Foods will pay $10 for each jar returned unopened and $5 for each jar already opened.
No payment will be made for empty jars, which do not need to be returned. However, the Retailing Manager will be interested to hear from people who have consumed chicken curry from any of the above batch numbers. In particular, it will be helpful if they can give information about the place of purchase of the product.
Jars of Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Coconut) and Fancy Foods Chicken Curry (Mango) have not been affected and do not need to be returned.
Fancy Foods will pay a reward of $10,000 to $50,000 for information which leads to the conviction of any person found guilty of placing metal pieces in its products. If you have such information, please contact the Customer Relations Manager, Fancy Foods Retailers, Blacktown.
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 4–8 on your answer sheet.
4. What has been found in some Fancy Foods products?
5. Where can you find the batch number on the jars?
6. How much will you receive for an opened jar of contaminated Chicken Curry?
7. If you have eaten Chicken Curry from a jar with one of the batch numbers listed, whom should you contact?
8. What is the maximum reward Fancy Foods is offering for information about who contaminated their product?
4. pieced of metal
5. (on) the bottom
7. (the) Retailing Manager
8. $50 000
Больше вариантов заданий IELTS General Training Reading вы можете найти по ссылке.